The dynamic response of an elastic strip foundation lying on elastic soil with saturated substrata is greatly affected by pore pressure induced by a rocking moment. In this paper, we explore the mixed boundary-value problem of the rocking vibration of an elastic strip foundation on elastic soil with saturated substrata via Biot dynamic equations. First, the wave equations concerning both the single-phase elastic layer and the saturated half-space are solved using a Fourier integral transform technique. The dual integral equations of the rocking vibration of an elastic strip foundation are established according to the mixed boundary conditions. Finally, the relationship of the dynamic compliance coefficient with the dimensionless frequency is obtained by applying Simpson’s rule to conduct numerical calculation. We also analyse the influences of the elastic layer’s thickness and elastic characteristic parameters of the foundation on the rocking vibration.