Abstract Background Today, the majority of small invasive and noninvasive breast cancers are treated with breast conservation therapy (BCT). The incidence of local-regional recurrence (LRR) after BCT for stage 0, I, and II patients ranges between 5% and 22%. Methods A literature search for BCT, local recurrence, and regional recurrence was performed. Data from over 50 articles pertaining to the characteristics, risk factors, detection, management, and prognosis of these patients with LRR after BCT were collected and analyzed. Results Positive margins, high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), young age, and the absence of radiation therapy after BCT increase the risk for LRR. Prognosis at LRR is impacted by invasive versus noninvasive histology, size and stage, method of detection, and involvement of skin and/or axillary lymph nodes. The standard treatment is salvage mastectomy. Conclusions The prognosis for LRR after BCT is favorable compared with patients with postmastectomy chest wall recurrence.