Abstract The lipid composition and rheological properties of expectorated airway secretions have been analyzed in 16 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), separated into two groups according to whether their secretions were superinfected or not. The total lipid content was higher in the superinfected CF secretions. The content in cholesterol and GL 1; GL 3 and GL 4 glycosphingolipid fractions were significantly higher in the superinfected in comparison to the non-superinfected group. The viscosity was two-fold higher in the CF superinfected group. A significant correlation ( r = 0.72, p < 0.01) was observed between the apparent viscosity and the total lipid content of CF secretions. Cholesterol, glycosphingolipids and sphingomyelin were the lipid components which were the most closely and positively correlated to the viscosity. On the opposite, phosphoglycerol was negatively correlated ( r= −0.72, p < 0.05) to the viscoelastic properties of CF airway secretions.