Abstract Third-order elastic constants of 45 chalcide crystals having the sodium chloride structure are reported using Born-Mayer potential model. We have considered repulsive interaction up to second nearest neighbours. The temperature coefficients of the third-order elastic constants have also been computed for these crystals. As is the case for NaCl-type alkali halides we find that C 111, C 112, C 166 are negative and C 144 are positive for 2:2 chalcide crystals possessing the NaCl-type structure. We have found that a 123, a 456 and a 144 are negative whereas a 112 and a 166 are positive, once again in agreement with the situation found for the alkali halides a 111 values are positive for alkali halides whereas they are both positive and negative depending upon the interionic distance for the chalcide crystals. We have found that the nature of the variation of C 0 αβγ with interionic separation is similar for alkali halides and for the 2:2 chalcides having the NaCl-structure. We have also computed the values of the pressure derivatives of second-order elastic constants for MgO, CaO, and SrO which agree well with the experimental values indicating the satisfactory nature of our computed data for C αβγ .