Abstract Cytogenetic investigation was attempted on 15 endometrial tumors. Whenever possible, a combination of direct harvesting and short-term culture (with or without prior methotrexate synchronization) was used. The analysis was successful in 13 cases: 12 carcinomas of stage I and one atypical hyperplasia. Clonal abnormalities were found in 10 tumors, whereas the remaining three showed a normal karyotype. The modal chromosome number was near-diploid. The abnormal karyotypes contained relatively simple numerical or structural aberrations in all but one tumor, a serous papillary carcinoma with multiple complex changes as well as cytogenetic evidence of intratumor heterogeneity. Gain of 1q, trisomy for chromosomes 2, 7, 10 (this trisomy was shown by in situ hybridization to be present also in a large number of interphase cells), and 12, and loss of chromosome 22 were recurrent aberrations; these are also the cytogenetic anomalies that have been consistently associated with endometrial carcinomas in previous studies. The utilization of both direct harvesting and short-term culture in several cases increased the frequency with which abnormal karyotypes were found; sometimes aberrations were found by the first method but not by the other, and vice versa. Never were different clonal anomalies found by the two approaches in the same case. Synchronization of the cultures generally led to chromosome preparations with more mitoses and of better quality. Again, no different anomalies were found in synchronized and standard cultures from the same tumor.