Chronic inflammation has been suggested to favour prostate cancer (PCA) development. Interleukins (IL) represent essential inflammation mediators. IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-21, sharing a common receptor ? chain (c-?), control T lymphocyte homeostasis and proliferation and play major roles in regulating cancer-immune system interactions. We evaluated local IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-21 gene expression in prostate tissues from patients with early stage PCA or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). As control, we used IL-6 gene, encoding an IL involved in PCA progression. IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15 titres were also measured in patients' sera.