Abstract The investigation of Relhania acerosa afforded, in addition to known compounds, three new labdane derivatives, two of which are esterified with succinic acid and one which has an anomalous carbon skeleton. Furthermore, several new aromatic compounds are isolated, which are most probably degradated thymol derivatives. The structures are elucidated by spectroscopic methods and by some chemical transformations. The stereochemistry of one of the new labdanes has been established by a partial synthesis. The chemotaxonomic situation is briefly discussed.