The development of texture in copper and brass (15 pct Zn by weight) rolled at room temperature and in copper rolled at -196degC has been followed by determination of pole figures for various degrees of reduction. The concurrent development in microstructure has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. For low deformations, the texture in brass, and in copper rolled at -196degC, is the same as the texture in copper rolled at room temperature. The difference in texture does not show until 50% reduction. At the same reduction at which the difference in texture appears, mechanical twinning starts in brass and low-temperature rolled copper. Nevertheless, Wassermann's twinning theory is found to be incompatible with the present results.