Abstract Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key growth factor driving angiogenesis (i.e. the formation of new blood vessels) in health and disease. Pharmacological blockade of VEGF signaling to inhibit tumor angiogenesis is clinically approved but the survival benefit is limited as patients invariably acquire resistance. This is partially mediated by the intrinsic flexibility of tumor cells to adapt to VEGF-blockade. However, it has become clear that tumor stromal cells also contribute to the resistance. Originally, VEGF was thought to specifically target endothelial cells (ECs) but it is now clear that many stromal cells also respond to VEGF signaling, making anti-VEGF therapy more complex than initially anticipated. A more comprehensive understanding of the complex responses of stromal cells to VEGF-blockade might inform the design of improved anti-angiogenic agents.