Abstract Fish make numerous decisions while foraging, including when to forage, where to forage, and what types of prey to feed on. These decisions will affect, and will be affected by, the energy balance within an animal. In theory, fish should maximize net energy intake by maximizing prey intake while minimizing energetic costs of foraging. Numerous internal and external factors, however, can prevent fish from foraging in this optimal manner. Studying the effects of these limitations on fish-foraging behavior can provide insight into how fish are able to maximize overall fitness in the face of numerous physiological and environmental constraints.