The status of the tree biomass resource was investigated in Ungra, a semi-arid village ecosystem in South India. There were 57 tree species with 12 trees capita−1 and 35 trees ha−1. Multiple benefit yielding local tree species dominated the village ecosystem, while fuel only or single end use trees accounted for a small proportion of trees. The standing tree biomass is adequate to meet the requirement of biomass fuels for cooking only for about two years. Village tree biomass is presently being depleted largely for export to urban areas. Tree regeneration is now characterized by transformation from multiple-use local tree species to a few single-use species. A large potential exists for tree biomass production along field boundaries (bunds), stream banks and roadsides. Biomass estimation equations were developed for 10 species.