This report summarizes the results after two years of a continuing prospective study of cadaver donor renal transplantation being conducted by the Southeastern Organ Procurement Foundation (SEOPF). Data are presented on 942 first grafts. Blood transfusions were found to be a major (if not the major) determinant of allograft survival. HLA-A and -B matching was of significant value and the effect of compatibility became more significant as time passed. ALS provided for better long-term survival of more compatible grafts, but it was not a "safer" immunosuppressant. Autogenous nephrectomy appeared to aid in the survival of more incompatible allografts, but not more compatible allografts. Kidneys obtained and implanted locally and kidneys obtained at one center and implanted at another had the same incidence of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) as well as the same patient and graft survival. Preservation time did not relate to ATN, patient survival, or graft survival (within the limits of the study); however, ATN did adversely affect graft survival. The final systolic pressure of the perfusion pump was the only perfusion characteristic which predicted ATN. Race, sex, pregnancy, and duration of dialysis did not correlate with graft survival if the effects of transfusions and compatibility were controlled.