Abstract Background Hypothermia may decrease postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion. We sought to determine the most suitable temperature for hypothermia for decreasing postoperative adhesion formation. Methods One hundred and twenty male BALB/c mice weighing 25 to 30 g were randomized into 5 groups: adhesion model with infusion of cold saline at (I) 15°C; (II) 10°C; or (III) 4°C; (IV) adhesion model without infusion of saline; and (V) sham operation without infusion of saline. Adhesion scores, incidence of adhesion, and serum cytokine levels were measured at postoperative days 1, 3, 7, and 14. Results Adhesion scores among groups I, II, and III did not differ significantly. Interleukin-6 was significantly decreased in groups I, II, and III, compared to the levels in groups IV and V (P < .05). Tumor necrosis factor-α levels in groups I and II were significantly decreased compared to those in groups III, IV, and V (P < .05). Conclusion We suggest that 15°C is the appropriate temperature for induction of hypothermia to decrease postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation.