D-Penicillamine is used against a variety of diseases. For many years it has been successful in treating Wilson's disease, cystinuria and heavy-metal poisonings. It also proved to be effective against rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, chronic active hepatitis, pulmonary fibrosis and multiple sclerosis. However, the use of D-penicillamine is still limited owing to the frequent occurrence of considerable, though generally reversible, side effects. This article deals with the history of D-penicillamine as well as the methods of its synthesis, its pharmacokinetics, effects and side effects. In addition, the significance of the stereo isomeric L-penicillamine is discussed.