Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is one of the most studied immune checkpoint in gastric cancer (GC). However, the prognostic role of CTLA-4 expression in GC is poorly described. This study aimed to evaluate CTLA-4 expression in GC and its impact on survival, including patients treated with standard platinum-based chemotherapy (CMT), and association with PD-L1 expression. All GC patients who underwent D2-gastrectomy were investigated retrospectively. Tumor samples were examined for CTLA-4 and PD-L1 by immunohistochemistry. Tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells, including CD4 + and CD8 + , were also examined. Among the 284 GC patients included, 159 (56%) were CTLA-4 positive and the remaining 125 (44%) were classified as negative. CTLA-4 positive GC was associated with increased inflammatory cell infiltration (p < 0.001), high CD8 + T cells (p = 0.016) and PD-L1 expression (p = 0.026). Considering GC referred for treatment, CTLA-4 negative patients who received CMT had a significant improvement in disease-free survival compared to untreated CLTA-4 negative (p = 0.028). In multivariate analysis, GC positive for both CTLA-4 and PD-L1 had a prognostic impact on survival. CTLA-4 positive was associated with PD-L1 expression and a high tumor-infiltrating CD8 + T cells. Accordingly, positivity for both CTLA-4 and PD-L1 was an independent factor associated to better survival in GC patients. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.