We previously shown that in a Turkish population, the A/G polymorphism in exon 1 of the cytotoxic T cell lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4) gene is associated with Graves' disease, and that the G allele may contribute to susceptibility for developing Graves' disease. This polymorphism was identified in 197 patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) (126 women, 71 men; aged, 42.92 +/- 13.4 years) and 98 healthy individuals (56 women, 21 men; aged, 42.27 +/- 13.43 years) in Turkish population. Polymorphisms were analysed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Frequency of the A/G genotypes was not significantly different in patients with HT when compared with controls in both sexes (P > 0.05). There was no statistical difference in age, sex, cigarette smoking, initial serum thyroid hormone levels, initial goiter size and thyroid autoantibodies among the patients with the three different genotypes (G/G, A/G and A/A). We concluded that A/G polymorphism of CTLA molecule is linked to occurrence of Graves' disease bu not to HT in the Turkish population.