Peritoneal tumour dissemination represents an advanced tumour stage and survival rates are usually low. In the past, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been established in adults leading to increased survival rates in comparison to chemotherapy alone. CRS and HIPEC are indicated in primary peritoneal tumours such as mesothelioma and pseudomyxoma peritonei, and in peritoneal metastases from gastrointestinal and ovarian cancers in adults. The incidence of peritoneal surface malignancies in children seems to be lower than in adults, but the incidence is unknown. Nevertheless, peritoneal carcinomatosis/sarcomatosis may occur in patients suffering from desmoplastic small round cell tumour (DSRCT), soft tissue sarcoma (rhabdomyosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, GIST or liposarcoma), as well as in patients with gastrointestinal cancers. CRS and HIPEC have been established as a novel treatment option in children suffering from peritoneal carcinomatosis/sarcomatosis in very few centres worldwide. This paper reviews the indications, treatment regimens, and pitfalls of this approach in children. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.