The degeneration of tadpole tail tissue was investigated cytochemically by localizing the sites of hydrogen peroxide production. A cerium perhydroxide precipitation method was used. No reaction product was found in resting macrophages and intact muscle fibres during premetamorphosis. In the metamorphosis phase, extensive cerium precipitates were visualized on the outer surface of the plasma membrane of phagocytotic macrophages, fibroblasts, neutrophils, epidermal cells, muscle fibres, notochordal cells, nerve cells and capillary endothelial cells. The reaction products were localized on those parts of the plasma membranes of the macrophages that were in contact with those of adjoining cells. When catalase were added, the amount of deposits decreased. alpha-Tocopherol and indomethacin, but not dexamethasone, significantly inhibited the formation of the reaction products. These findings are taken to indicate that active oxygen is produced on the plasma membrane of activated macrophages and may play a role in the degeneration of the tail tissue.