The peripheral chemokine receptors chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) and CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) have been reported to be associated with allograft rejection. The impact of the expression of immunosuppressive drugs on peripherally circulating CD4(+) T cell subsets after renal transplantation is unknown. Expression of CXCR3 and CCR5 was investigated by flow cytometry in 20 renal allograft recipients participating in a prospective, randomized trial (NCT00514514). Initial immunosuppression consisted of basiliximab, cyclosporin A (CsA), mycophenolate sodium and corticosteroids. After 3 months, patients were treated either with CsA, mycophenolate sodium (MPA) plus corticosteroids (n = 6), CsA and everolimus plus corticosteroids (n =8) or CsA-free (CsA(free)) receiving everolimus, MPA and corticosteroids (n = 6). After initial reduction of CD4(+) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) and CD4(+) CD25(hi) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (T(regs)) (P < 0.05; P < 0.01), 3-month post-transplant percentages of T(regs) were reconstituted in CsA(free) and CsA(lo) arms compared to CsA(reg) 12 months post transplant. Expression of CCR5 and CXCR3 on CD4(+) FoxP3(+) and CD4(+) FoxP3(-) T cells 12 months post transplant was increased in CsA(free) versus CsA(reg). Increase in CCR5(+) CXCR3(+) co-expressing CD4(+) FoxP3(-) cells between 3 and 12 months correlated negatively with the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) slope/year [modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD); r = -0.59, P < 0.01]. CsA, but not everolimus, inhibits both T(reg) development and expression of CXCR3 and CCR5 on CD4(+) T cell subsets. Increase in CCR5(+) CXCR3(+) co-expressing CD4(+) FoxP3(-) T cells is associated with early loss in allograft function.