Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is the second most frequent cancer in humans and its incidence continues to rise. Although CSCC usually display a benign clinical behavior, it can be both locally invasive and metastatic. The signaling pathways involved in CSCC development have given rise to targetable molecules in recent decades. In addition, the high mutational burden and increased risk of CSCC in patients under immunosuppression were part of the rationale for developing the immunotherapy for CSCC that has changed the therapeutic landscape. This review focuses on the molecular basis of CSCC and the current biology-based approaches of targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Another purpose of this review is to explore the landscape of drugs that may induce or contribute to the development of CSCC. Beginning with the pathogenetic basis of these drug-induced CSCCs, we move on to consider potential therapeutic opportunities for overcoming this adverse effect.