Recent studies have illustrated that psoriatic lesions are innervated by dense sensory nerve fibers. Psoriatic plaques appeared to improve after central or peripheral nerve injury. Therefore, the nervous system may play a vital role in psoriasis. We aimed to clarify the expression of nerve fibers in psoriasis and their relationship with immune cells and keratinocytes, and to explore the effect of skin nerve impairment. Our results illustrated that nerve fibers in psoriatic lesions increased and were closely innervated around immune cells and keratinocytes. RNA-seq analysis showed that peripheral sensory nerve-related genes were disrupted in psoriasis. In spinal cord hemi-section mice, sensory impairment improved psoriasiform dermatitis and inhibited the abnormal proliferation of keratinocytes. Botulinum toxin A alleviated psoriasiform dermatitis by inhibiting the secretion of calcitonin gene-related peptide. Collectively, cutaneous nerve fibers participate in the progression of psoriasis by linking epidermal keratinocytes and immunocytes. Neurological intervention may be a new treatment strategy for psoriasis. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.