Diabetic macular edema is the major cause of vision impairment in the diabetic population. Its treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach and the use of both systemic and local therapies. Current management includes the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors and steroids administered as intravitreal injections, as well as laser therapy and surgical treatment. Treatment modalities in diabetic macular edema have changed in recent years, after the introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, which are gradually replacing laser photocoagulation. All anti-VEGF agents tested so far showed efficacy in the treatment of diabetic macular edema. Due to structural differences, the therapeutic efficacy of different anti-VEGF products varies. According to recent results, 2,0 mg of aflibercept is more effective than 0,3 mg of ranibizumab in patients with lower visual acuity at baseline. Additionally, its superiority was shown in reducing the number of required macular laser photocoagulation procedures. This article provides a comprehensive overview of available therapeutic modalities based on laser photocoagulation, anti-VEGF agents, steroid injections or surgical interventions, and discusses their efficacy in patients with diabetic macular edema.