Municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the key components of India’s prominent mission “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.” Rising urbanization, faster economic growth, and lifestyle changes all contribute to higher waste generation in India. Unscientific treatment, improper collection, and low use of technology-based solutions for handling MSW lead to hazards like environmental degradation, water pollution, air pollution, and soil pollution. The review paper describes the current status of MSW in different states and union territories as well as reviews the MSW generation, characteristics, and processing methods as practiced in India. It also highlighted government policy and various geographic constraints while rolling out an effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system. Furthermore, a comparison of MSW has been described for advanced, developing, and lesser developed countries based on adopted technology, policies, and infrastructure. The study will help decision-makers and scholars formulate more effective strategies for an effective way forward plan for MSWM.