Since the introduction of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear system in 1943, cervicovaginal cytology has been used as a standard screening test for cervical cancer. The dissemination of this test contributed to reductions of the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer worldwide. In Korea, regular health check-ups for industrial workers and their family members were introduced in 1988 and were performed as part of the National Cancer Screening Program in 1999. As a result, the incidence of cervical cancer in Korea has been steadily decreasing. However, about 800 cases of cervical cancer-related deaths are reported each year due to false-negative test results. Hence, new screening methods have been proposed. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) was introduced in 1996 to overcome the limitations of conventional Pap smears. Since then, other LBC methods have been developed and utilized, including the human papilloma virus test—a method with higher sensitivity that requires fewer screenings. In this study, we review current issues and future perspectives related to cervical cancer screening in Korea.