The main steps in treatment are diagnostic thoracocentesis and imaging, small percutaneous drainage, and considering fibrinolysis in complicated PPE. In case of failure, VATS should be the surgical method to be applied.
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. This record was last updated on 07/04/2016 and may not reflect the most current and accurate biomedical/scientific data available from NLM. The corresponding record at NLM can be accessed at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22502916