Cancer of the vulva is a rare disease accounting for only 3 to 5% of all gynaecologic cancers. The incidence rates of this cancer vary depending upon the country considered, the lowest rates being reported for Asian and African populations. An increased incidence of in situ carcinomas of the vulva has been noted recently among young women. In this population, the risk factors are: a young age at first sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, a low socio-cultural level, previous infection by human papilloma virus (HPV) and smoking. An association has also been found with other types of cancers, either in relation with HPV-infection or with tobacco use. In contrast, older women are usually diagnosed with advanced-stage, squamous or keratinous invasive forms of the disease with no clear link with either smoking experience or previous HPV-infection.