Laryngeal cancer is the third most common malignancy in the head and neck region. Endoscopic laryngoscopy with assessment of vocal fold function, microlaryngoscopy with biopsy and computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remain the cornerstones of diagnostic workup. Thus, in the context of therapy planning, consideration of individual functional and socioeconomic aspects is of major importance. Due to the short acquisition time and the possibility to perform functional maneuvers, CT is the tool of choice. MRI allows better soft tissue differentiation, but is more susceptible to movement artifacts and is complicated by disease-specific symptoms. The choice of examination method therefore depends on the patient's physical resilience. Depending on the study, the information on the sensitivity of CT with regard to the question of cartilage infiltration varies between 62 and 87% with a specificity between 75 and 98%. For MRI, sensitivity between 64 and 95% and specificity between 56 and 88% are stated. The synthesis of the findings from endoscopy, biopsy and imaging is prerequisite for initiation of stage-appropriate treatment. For image interpretation, knowledge of the anatomical landmarks is essential. However, the assessment of posttherapeutic changes also poses a challenge for the radiologist. Regular interdisciplinary dialogue between radiologists, otorhinolaryngologists and radiotherapists in the context of primary diagnostics, therapy planning and aftercare is essential.