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Curative-Intent Therapies in Localized Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Authors
  • O’Leary, Cathal1
  • Mahler, Mary2
  • Soulen, Michael C.1
  • 1 Department of Radiology, 3400 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA , Philadelphia (United States)
  • 2 University of Toronto, 500 University Avenue, Suite 602, Toronto, Ontario, M5G1V7, Canada , Toronto (Canada)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Publisher
Springer US
Publication Date
Mar 19, 2020
Volume
21
Issue
4
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s11864-020-0725-3
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
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Abstract

Purpose of Review:The high mortality rate for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) relative to its prevalence underscores the need for curative-intent therapies. Image-guided therapies such as ablation and embolization have an established role as primary or neoadjuvants preparing patients for curative treatment.Recent Findings:For HCC < 3 cm, percutaneous thermal ablation provides oncologic outcomes similar to surgical resection and is now a recommended first-line therapy in the EASL guidelines. Both ablation and embolization are recommended as bridging therapies for HCC patients awaiting liver transplantation. T3 HCC can be downstaged by embolization to T2, allowing liver transplantation with similar outcomes to patients transplanted within Milan criteria. New and evolving techniques such as SBRT, radiation segmentectomy and lobectomy, and combination therapies show promise but require further prospective data before they can be integrated into treatment algorithms.Summary:Combinations of embolic, ablative, and extirpative therapies can increase access to curative-intent treatment of HCC. Multidisciplinary treatment decisions are required to craft optimal treatment strategies considering tumor size, location, and underlying liver cirrhosis.

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