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Culturing periprosthetic tissue in blood culture bottles results in isolation of additional microorganisms

Authors
  • van den Bijllaardt, Wouter
  • van der Jagt, Olav P.
  • Peijs, Marc
  • Janssens, Marco
  • Buiting, Anton G.
  • Reuwer, Anne Q.
Type
Published Article
Journal
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Nov 14, 2018
Volume
38
Issue
2
Pages
245–252
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s10096-018-3420-6
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

Despite low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue (PPT) specimens on agars and in broths has traditionally been used for the detection of causative microorganisms in patients suspected for prosthetic joint infection (PJI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the added diagnostic value of culturing PPT in blood culture bottles (BCB) over the conventional combination of standard agar and broth alone. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 12-month period and included consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 113 episodes from 90 subjects were studied; 45 subjects (50.0%) met the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) criteria for PJI, of whom the majority (75.6%) had an acute infection. Sensitivity and specificity of culture were assessed using IDSA criteria for PJI as gold standard. Although the increase in sensitivity from 84.44 (CI 70.54; 93.51) to 93.33% (81.73; 98.60) was not significant, added diagnostic value of culturing PPT in BCBs was demonstrated by the significantly higher number of detected pathogens in culture sets with BCBs compared to culture without BCBs (61 pathogens in conventional set versus 89 when BCBs were included for 57 PJI episodes, P = <0.0001). In 17 (29.8%) episodes, microorganisms were cultured from BCBs only, and in 9 (52.9%) of these episodes, virulent pathogens were found. This study demonstrates that PPT culture in BCBs leads to isolation of additional microorganisms, both virulent and low-virulent, which were not cultured with use of agars and broths alone. Isolation of additional causative microorganisms has serious consequences for the treatment strategy in PJI.

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