This paper summarizes two presentations and a panel discussion engaging health scientists, educators, and community outreach professionals who have drawn upon their experiences as researchers and agricultural workers to describe research challenges related to access, trust, language, culture, and participant benefit. These presentations and discussion took place at the New Paths: Health and Safety in Western Agriculture conference, November 11-13, 2008. An overview of changing demographics of the western agricultural workforce was provided followed by a presentation of the application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles including cultural considerations. Using an interview format, the panel participants discussed challenges related to involving members of vulnerable agricultural worker populations throughout the research process. Lessons learned and recommendations were explored and successes identified.