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Cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Swedish version of the Reproductive Concerns After Cancer (RCAC) scale

  • Anandavadivelan, Poorna1
  • Wiklander, Maria2
  • Eriksson, Lars E.3, 4, 5
  • Wettergren, Lena1
  • Lampic, Claudia1, 6
  • 1 Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden , Solna (Sweden)
  • 2 Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden , Huddinge (Sweden)
  • 3 Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden , Stockholm (Sweden)
  • 4 University of London, London, UK , London (United Kingdom)
  • 5 Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden , Huddinge (Sweden)
  • 6 Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden , Uppsala (Sweden)
Published Article
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Aug 06, 2020
DOI: 10.1186/s12955-020-01520-y
Springer Nature


BackgroundReproductive concerns are common among young cancer survivors and include worries related to different aspects of fertility and parenthood. The Reproductive Concerns After Cancer (RCAC) scale is an 18-item scale with six dimensions, developed to capture a variety of such concerns. The aim of the present study was to describe the cultural adaptation of the RCAC scale into Swedish and evaluate its psychometric properties among young women who have undergone treatment for cancer.MethodsThe RCAC was forward translated from English into Swedish and assessed for cultural adaptation based on a two-panel approach followed by cognitive interviews with the target group. For the psychometric evaluation, a Swedish cohort of 181 female young adult breast cancer survivors completed a survey including the RCAC scale approximately 1.5 years post-diagnosis. Psychometric properties were examined by analyses of construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis and convergent validity), data quality (score distribution, floor and ceiling effects), reliability and known-groups validity.ResultsThe confirmatory factor analysis yielded an acceptable fit (RMSEA 0.08, SRMR 0.09, CFI 0.92). Convergent validity was demonstrated by a negative correlation of moderate size (− 0.36) between the RCAC total score and the emotional function scale of the EORTC QLQ-C30. Reliability measured with Revelle Ω total was satisfactory (0.73–0.92) for five of the dimensions, and poor for the dimension Becoming pregnant (Revelle Ω total = 0.60); Cronbach’s alpha showed a similar pattern. Known-groups validity was indicated by significant RCAC mean score differences (MD), reflecting more concerns among women with a certain (MD 4.56 [95% CI 3.13 to 5.99]) or uncertain (MD 3.41 [95% CI 1.68 to 5.14]) child wish compared to those with no wish for (additional) children.ConclusionThe translation and cultural adaptation of the Swedish RCAC has resulted in a scale demonstrating construct and known-groups validity, and satisfactory reliability for five of six dimensions. The dimension Becoming pregnant showed non-optimal internal consistency and should undergo further evaluation. The Swedish RCAC is recommended to be used in research settings for measurement of concerns related to fertility and parenthood in young women with cancer.

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