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Cultural adaptation of the person-centered maternity care scale at governmental health facilities in Cambodia

  • Naito, Yuko Takahashi
  • Fukuzawa, Rieko
  • Afulani, Patience A
  • Kim, Rattana
  • Aiga, Hirotsugu
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2023
eScholarship - University of California
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BackgroundIn Cambodia, the importance of valuing women's childbirth experiences in improving quality of care has been understudied. This is largely because of absence of reliable Khmer tools for measuring women's intrapartum care experiences. Generally, cross-cultural development of those tools often involves translation from a source language into a target language. Yet, few earlier studies considered Cambodian cultural context. Thus, we developed the Cambodian version of the Person-Centered Maternity Care (PCMC) scale, by culturally adapting its original to Cambodian context for ensuring cultural equivalence and content validity.MethodsThree rounds of cognitive interviewing with 20 early postpartum women were conducted at two governmental health facilities in Cambodia. Cognitive interviewing was composed of structured questionnaire pretesting and qualitative probing. The issues identified in the process of transcribing and translating audio-recorded cognitive interviews were iteratively discussed among study team members, and further analyzed.ResultsA total of 14 issues related to cultural adaptations were identified in the 31 translated questions for the Cambodian version of the PCMC scale. Our study identified three key findings: (i) discrepancies between the WHO recommendations on intrapartum care and Cambodian field realities; (ii) discrepancies in recognition on PCMC between national experts and local women; and (iii) challenges in correctly collecting and interpreting less-educated women's views on intrapartum care.ConclusionNot only women's verbal data but also their non-verbal data and cultural contexts should be comprehensively counted, when reflecting Cambodian women's intrapartum practice realities in the translated version. This is the first study that attempted to develop the tool for measuring Cambodian women's experiences during childbirth, by addressing cross-cultural issues.

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