A new and compact sensor based on the complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) structure is proposed to characterize the relative permittivity of various dielectric materials, enabling the determination of soil water content (SWC). The proposed sensor consists of a circular microstrip patch antenna supporting a 3D-printed small cylindrical container made out of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) filament. The principle of operation is based on the shifting of two of the antenna resonant frequencies caused by changing the relative permittivity of the material under test (MUT). Simulations are performed enabling the development of an empirical model of analysis. The sensitivity of the sensor is investigated and its effectiveness is analyzed by characterizing typical dielectric materials. The proposed sensor, which can be applied to characterize different types of dielectric materials, is used to determine the percentage of water contained in different soil types. Prototypes are fabricated and measured and the obtained results are compared with results from other research works, to validate the proposed sensor effectiveness. Moreover, the sensor was used to determine the percentage of water concentration in quartz sand and red clay samples.