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Cross-protection induced by highly conserved human B, CD4+, and CD8+ T-cell epitopes-based vaccine against severe infection, disease, and death caused by multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.

Authors
  • Prakash, Swayam
  • Dhanushkodi, Nisha
  • Zayou, Latifa
  • Ibraim, Izabela
  • Quadiri, Afshana
  • Coulon, Pierre
  • Tifrea, Delia
  • Suzer, Berfin
  • Shaik, Amin
  • Chilukuri, Amruth
  • Edwards, Robert
  • Singer, Mahmoud
  • Vahed, Hawa
  • Nesburn, Anthony
  • Kuppermann, Baruch
  • Ulmer, Jeffrey
  • Gil, Daniel
  • Jones, Trevor
  • BenMohamed, Lbachir
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2024
Source
eScholarship - University of California
Keywords
License
Unknown
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Abstract

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created one of the largest global health crises in almost a century. Although the current rate of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections has decreased significantly, the long-term outlook of COVID-19 remains a serious cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with the mortality rate still substantially surpassing even that recorded for influenza viruses. The continued emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), including multiple heavily mutated Omicron sub-variants, has prolonged the COVID-19 pandemic and underscores the urgent need for a next-generation vaccine that will protect from multiple SARS-CoV-2 VOCs. METHODS: We designed a multi-epitope-based coronavirus vaccine that incorporated B, CD4+, and CD8+ T- cell epitopes conserved among all known SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and selectively recognized by CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells from asymptomatic COVID-19 patients irrespective of VOC infection. The safety, immunogenicity, and cross-protective immunity of this pan-variant SARS-CoV-2 vaccine were studied against six VOCs using an innovative triple transgenic h-ACE-2-HLA-A2/DR mouse model. RESULTS: The pan-variant SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (i) is safe , (ii) induces high frequencies of lung-resident functional CD8+ and CD4+ TEM and TRM cells , and (iii) provides robust protection against morbidity and virus replication. COVID-19-related lung pathology and death were caused by six SARS-CoV-2 VOCs: Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma or P1 (B.1.1.28.1), Delta (lineage B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529). CONCLUSION: A multi-epitope pan-variant SARS-CoV-2 vaccine bearing conserved human B- and T- cell epitopes from structural and non-structural SARS-CoV-2 antigens induced cross-protective immunity that facilitated virus clearance, and reduced morbidity, COVID-19-related lung pathology, and death caused by multiple SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.

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