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Cross-cultural neuropsychological assessment in Europe: Position statement of the European Consortium on Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology (ECCroN).

  • Franzen, Sanne1
  • Watermeyer, Tam J2, 3
  • Pomati, Simone4
  • Papma, Janne M1
  • Nielsen, T Rune5
  • Narme, Pauline6
  • Mukadam, Naaheed7
  • Lozano-Ruiz, Álvaro8, 9
  • Ibanez-Casas, Inmaculada8, 10
  • Goudsmit, Miriam11
  • Fasfous, Ahmed8, 12
  • Daugherty, Julia C8
  • Canevelli, Marco13, 14
  • Calia, Clara15
  • van den Berg, Esther1
  • Bekkhus-Wetterberg, Peter16
  • 1 Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC - University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
  • 2 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle, England.
  • 3 Edinburgh Dementia Prevention, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.
  • 4 Ospedale Luigi Sacco, Milan, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 5 Danish Dementia Research Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. , (Denmark)
  • 6 MC2Lab (URP 7546), Université de Paris, Paris, France. , (France)
  • 7 University College London, London, England.
  • 8 Mind, Brain and Behavior Research Center (CIMCYC), University of Granada, Granada, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 9 Department of Personality, Evaluation and Psychological Treatment, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 10 State University of New York at Plattsburgh (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY, USA.
  • 11 OLVG Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
  • 12 Department of Social Sciences, Bethlehem University, Bethlehem, Palestine. , (Palestinian Territories)
  • 13 Department of Human Neuroscience, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 14 National Center for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Italian National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 15 University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.
  • 16 Oslo University Hospital Ulleval, Oslo, Norway. , (Norway)
Published Article
The Clinical neuropsychologist
Publication Date
Apr 01, 2022
DOI: 10.1080/13854046.2021.1981456
PMID: 34612169


Over the past decades European societies have become increasingly diverse. This diversity in culture, education, and language significantly impacts neuropsychological assessment. Although several initiatives are under way to overcome these barriers - e.g. newly developed and validated test batteries - there is a need for more collaboration in the development and implementation of neuropsychological tests, such as in the domains of social cognition and language. To address these gaps in cross-cultural neuropsychological assessment in Europe, the European Consortium on Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology (ECCroN) was established in 2019. ECCroN recommends taking a broad range of variables into account, such as linguistic factors, literacy, education, migration history, acculturation and other cultural factors. We advocate against race-based norms as a solution to the challenging interpretation of group differences on neuropsychological tests, and instead support the development, validation, and standardization of more widely applicable/cross-culturally applicable tests that take into account interindividual variability. Last, ECCroN advocates for an improvement in the clinical training of neuropsychologists in culturally sensitive neuropsychological assessment, and the development and implementation of guidelines for interpreter-mediated neuropsychological assessment in diverse populations in Europe. ECCroN may impact research and clinical practice by contributing to existing theoretical frameworks and by improving the assessment of diverse individuals across Europe through collaborations on test development, collection of normative data, cross-cultural clinical training, and interpreter-mediated assessment.

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