Driver fatigue is a major cause of road accidents and has implications for road safety. This review discusses the concepts of fatigue and provides a summary on psychophysiological associations with driver fatigue. A variety of psychophysiological parameters have been used in previous research as indicators of fatigue, with electroencephalography perhaps being the most promising. Most research found changes in theta and delta activity to be strongly linked to transition to fatigue. Therefore, monitoring electroencephalography during driver fatigue may be a promising variable for use in fatigue countermeasure devices. The review also identified anxiety and mood states as factors that may possibly affect driver fatigue. Furthermore, personality and temperament may also influence fatigue. Given the above, understanding the psychology of fatigue may lead to better fatigue management. The findings from this review are discussed in the light of directions for future studies and for the development of fatigue countermeasures. Copyright © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.