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A Critical Review of Existing Test-Methods for External Sulfate Attack

Authors
  • jabbour;, mike
Publication Date
Oct 27, 2022
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/ma15217554
OAI: oai:mdpi.com:/1996-1944/15/21/7554/
Source
MDPI
Keywords
Language
English
License
Green
External links

Abstract

External sulfate attack (ESA) of cementitious materials has been studied worldwide for a very long time. This physical/chemical interaction between sulfate ions and the cement hardened elements affects the long-term durability of concrete structures: cracking, spalling or strength loss of concrete structures. To study these damaging phenomena, some standardized and non-standardized accelerated aging tests are used to evaluate the performance of cements in sulfate-rich environments. However, these existing methods do not adequately predict field performance and some shortcomings or deficiencies still exist: change of degradation mechanisms when using high concentrations of sulfate, variable boundary conditions and small specimens compared to the real concrete structures. In this work, a critical review of some existing test methods and foreign national standard methods for ESA are presented, analyzed, and discussed. This results in some proposed recommendations for improving these methods to meet the needs of structure managers.

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