Supercapacitors (SCs) have attracted attention as an important energy source for various applications owing to their high power outputs and outstanding energy densities. The electrochemical performance of an SC device is predominantly determined by electrode materials, and thus, the selection and synthesis of the materials are crucial. Metal oxides (MOs) and their composites are the most widely used pseudocapacitive SC electrode materials. The basic requirements for fabricating high-performance SC electrodes include synthesizing and/or chemically modifying unique conducting nanostructures, optimizing a heterostructure morphology, and generating large-surface-area electroactive sites, all of which predominantly rely on various techniques used for synthesizing MO materials and fabricating MO- and MO-composite-based SC electrodes. Therefore, an SC’s background and critical aspects, the challenges associated with the predominant synthesis techniques (including hydrothermal and microwave-assisted syntheses and chemical-bath and atomic-layer depositions), and resulting electrode electrochemical performances should be summarized in a convenient, accessible report to accelerate the development of materials for industrial SC applications. Therefore, we reviewed the most pertinent studies on these synthesis techniques to provide insight into the most recent advances in synthesizing MOs and fabricating their composite-based SC electrodes as well as to propose research directions for developing MO-based electrodes for applications to next-generation SCs.