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COVID-19: a new emerging respiratory disease from the neurological perspective

Authors
  • El-Sayed, Amr1
  • Aleya, Lotfi2
  • Kamel, Mohamed1
  • 1 Cairo University,
  • 2 Bourgogne Franche-Comté University,
Type
Published Article
Journal
Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Feb 15, 2021
Pages
1–15
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-12969-9
PMID: 33590398
PMCID: PMC7884096
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a challenging public health catastrophe worldwide. The newly emerged disease spread in almost all countries and infected 100 million persons worldwide. The infection is not limited to the respiratory system but involves various body systems and may lead to multiple organ failure. Tissue degenerative changes result from direct viral invasion, indirect consequences, or through an uncontrolled immune response. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads to the brain via hematogenous and neural routes accompanied with dysfunction of the blood–brain barrier. The involvement of the central nervous system is now suspected to be among the main causes of death. The present review discusses the historical background of coronaviruses, their role in previous and ongoing pandemics, the way they escape the immune system, why they are able to spread despite all undertaken measures, in addition to the neurological manifestations, long-term consequences of the disease, and various routes of viral introduction to the CNS.

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