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COVID-19 infection and nanomedicine applications for development of vaccines and therapeutics: An overview and future perspectives based on polymersomes

Authors
  • Al-Hatamleh, Mohammad A.I.1
  • Hatmal, Ma'mon M.2
  • Alshaer, Walhan3
  • Rahman, Engku Nur Syafirah E.A.4
  • Mohd-Zahid, Manali Haniti5
  • Alhaj-Qasem, Dina M.6
  • Yean, Chan Yean4, 7
  • Alias, Iskandar Z.5, 7
  • Jaafar, Juhana8
  • Ferji, Khalid9
  • Six, Jean-Luc9
  • Uskoković, Vuk10
  • Yabu, Hiroshi11
  • Mohamud, Rohimah1, 7
  • 1 Department of Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • 2 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, The Hashemite University, P.O. Box 330127, Zarqa, 13133, Jordan
  • 3 Cell Therapy Center (CTC), The University of Jordan, Amman, 11942, Jordan
  • 4 Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • 5 Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • 6 Precision Medical Laboratory, Amman, 11954, Jordan
  • 7 Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • 8 Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, 81310, Johor, Malaysia
  • 9 Université de Lorraine, CNRS, LCPM, F-5400, Nancy, France
  • 10 TardigradeNano LLC, Irvine, CA, 92604, USA
  • 11 WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-Ku, Sendai, 980-8577, Japan
Type
Published Article
Journal
European Journal of Pharmacology
Publisher
Elsevier B.V.
Publication Date
Feb 03, 2021
Volume
896
Pages
173930–173930
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.173930
PMID: 33545157
PMCID: PMC7857087
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Article
License
Unknown

Abstract

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in December 2019 and caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, took the world by surprise with an unprecedented public health emergency. Since this pandemic began, extraordinary efforts have been made by scientists to understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and to fight the infection by providing various preventive, diagnostic and treatment opportunities based on either novel hypotheses or past experiences. Despite all the achievements, COVID-19 continues to be an accelerating health threat with no specifically approved vaccine or therapy. This review highlights the recent advances in COVID-19 infection, with a particular emphasis on nanomedicine applications that can help in the development of effective vaccines or therapeutics against COVID-19. A novel future perspective has been proposed in this review based on utilizing polymersome nano-objects for effectively suppressing the cytokine storm, which may reduce the severity of COVID-19 infection.

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