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COVID-19: Immunology, Immunopathogenesis and Potential Therapies

Authors
  • Bhardwaj, Asha1
  • Sapra, Leena1
  • Saini, Chaman1
  • Azam, Zaffar1
  • Mishra, Pradyumna K.2
  • Verma, Bhupendra1
  • Mishra, Gyan C.3
  • Srivastava, Rupesh K.1
  • 1 Department of Biotechnology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, India , (India)
  • 2 Department of Molecular Biology, ICMR-NIREH, Nehru Hospital Building, Gandhi Medical College Campus, India , (India)
  • 3 Lab # 1, National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS), Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, India , (India)
Type
Published Article
Journal
International Reviews of Immunology
Publisher
Informa UK (Taylor & Francis)
Publication Date
Feb 27, 2021
Pages
1–36
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1080/08830185.2021.1883600
PMID: 33641587
PMCID: PMC7919479
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Review
License
Unknown

Abstract

The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) imposed public health emergency and affected millions of people around the globe. As of January 2021, 100 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 along with more than 2 million deaths were reported worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 infection causes excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines thereby leading to the development of “Cytokine Storm Syndrome.” This condition results in uncontrollable inflammation that further imposes multiple-organ-failure eventually leading to death. SARS-CoV-2 induces unrestrained innate immune response and impairs adaptive immune responses thereby causing tissue damage. Thus, understanding the foremost features and evolution of innate and adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is crucial in anticipating COVID-19 outcomes and in developing effective strategies to control the viral spread. In the present review, we exhaustively discuss the sequential key immunological events that occur during SARS-CoV-2 infection and are involved in the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19. In addition to this, we also highlight various therapeutic options already in use such as immunosuppressive drugs, plasma therapy and intravenous immunoglobulins along with various novel potent therapeutic options that should be considered in managing COVID-19 infection such as traditional medicines and probiotics.

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