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COVID-19: Between Past and Present.

Authors
  • Assaf, Areej M1
  • Haddadin, Randa N1
  • Akour, Amal A1
  • 1 Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. , (Jordan)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Viral Immunology
Publisher
Mary Ann Liebert
Publication Date
Apr 01, 2021
Volume
34
Issue
3
Pages
145–157
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1089/vim.2020.0102
PMID: 33017280
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Since the WHO declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic, huge efforts were made to understand the disease, its pathogenesis, and treatment. COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2), which is closely related to SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). This article attempts to provide a timely and comprehensive review of the coronaviruses over the years, and the epidemics they caused in this century with a focus on the current pandemic COVID-19. It also covers the basics about the disease immunopathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment options. Although almost every single week new clinical findings are published, which change our understanding of COVID-19, this review explores and explains the disease and the treatment options available so far. In summary, many therapeutic options are being investigated to treat and/or ameliorate the symptoms of COVID-19, but none is registered and no sufficient data to support immune-based therapy beyond the context of clinical trials. For that, strengthening our immune system is the best defense at this time.

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