The "general pair method" (GPM) is a nonparametric, identity-by-state (IBS) method of assessing linkage between a chromosomal marker and a binary phenotype. It is applicable to any pedigree structure, and uses marker information from affected as well as unaffected individuals. Results obtained here from nuclear families (Problem 2A) are contrasted with those from extended pedigrees (Problem 2B). Test statistics for chromosomal linkage between each marker and disease status are contrasted with tests for "direct association" which test the hypothesis that a particular allele is associated disease status across all pedigrees. A novel extension of the GPM is presented here for testing whether the strength of linkage (and/or association) depends on the levels of a covariate (i.e., dependency on gender, age, the levels of the "environmental factor," or the levels of the "quantitative phenotypes" supplied). The GPM is seen to have some power to detect major gene 1 on chromosome 5, and major gene 3 on chromosome 4. The gender interaction effects proved too small to detect. No direct associations are found.