Background: Most multiple sclerosis (MS) patients will develop walking limitations during the disease. Sustained-release oral fampridine is the only approved drug that will improve gait in a subset of MS patients. Objectives: (1) Evaluate fampridine cortical excitability effect in MS patients with gait disability. (2) Investigate whether cortical excitability changes can predict the therapeutic response to fampridine. Method: This prospective observational study enrolled 20 adult patients with MS and gait impairment planned to receive fampridine 10 mg twice daily for two consecutive weeks. Exclusion criteria included: Recent relapse (< / 3 months), modification of disease modifying drugs (< / 6 months), or Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score > / 7. Neurological examination, timed 25-foot walk test (T25wt), EDSS, and cortical excitability studies were performed upon inclusion and 14 days after initiation of fampridine. Results: After treatment, the mean improvement of T25wt (&Delta / T25wt) was 4.9 s. Significant enhancement of intra-cortical facilitation was observed (139% versus 241%, p = 0.01) following treatment. A positive correlation was found between baseline resting motor threshold (rMT) and both EDSS (r = 0.57 / p < / 0.01) and &Delta / T25wt (r = 0.57, p = 0.01). rMT above 52% of the maximal stimulator output was found to be a good predictor of a favorable response to fampridine (accuracy: 75%). Discussion: Fampridine was found to have a significant modulatory effect on the cerebral cortex, demonstrated by an increase in excitatory intracortical processes as unveiled by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. rMT could be useful in selecting patients likely to experience a favorable response to fampridine.