The aim of the present study was to compare serum leptin, kisspeptin, total adiponectin, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels between girls with central precocious puberty (CPP; n=26, 7-9.5 years old) and age-matched controls (n=29) including or excluding obese girls. Leptin and NPY levels were comparable between CPP and control girls. Kisspeptin levels were lower in the CPP than control group, and were positively correlated with oestrogen in the control group and with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the CPP group. Kisspeptin levels were negatively correlated with FSH and LH in the CPP group. Total adiponectin levels were lower in CPP than control girls, and were negatively correlated with Tanner stage and body mass index, but positively correlated with the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index in the control group. HMW adiponectin was higher in the CPP than control group, and was positively correlated with Tanner stage and LH in all girls. Total adiponectin had a strong positive correlation with HMW adiponectin in the CPP group (r=0.915) compared with the control group (r=0.371). In conclusion, kisspeptin may be associated with increased oestrogen in prepubertal girls, but with increased blood pressure in girls with CPP. In girls entering puberty, HMW adiponectin was increased and associated with reproductive parameters. Based on these observations, HMW adiponectin probably plays an essential role in the initiation of puberty and is a candidate marker for the prediction of CPP.