Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in guinea pig iris was inhibited by methylisocyclopentylfluorophosphate (soman) administered topically or parenterally, and enzyme activity was correlated to pupillary diameter by infrared pupillography. After a single topical soman instillation into the conjunctival sac there was an almost linear relationship between the reduction in AChE activity and pupillary diameter. Topical administration of soman at 24-h intervals in doses capable of almost complete inhibition of AChE in iris was accompanied by a reduced miotic effect of this drug. This was indicated by a reduced rate of the soman-induced pupillary constriction, a less pronounced reduction in pupillary diameter, and a more rapid return of the pupillary diameter to normal size. The change in pupillary diameter occurred after three daily administrations and remained constant during 31 days of treatment. These observations were seen irrespective of inhibition of blood AChE. The decrease in response to repeated administration could not be explained by a reduced inhibitory effect of soman on AChE, by a more rapid de novo synthesis of AChE, or by a change in the number of the muscarinic receptors as determined by quinuclidinyl benzilate binding. When soman or DFP was administered subcutaneously in high doses a severe AChE inhibition was obtained in iris without any concomitant miosis.