This study evaluated the effects of proximal segment rotation and the extent of mandibular setback on post-sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) relapse using three-dimensional (3D) analysis. Thirty-one patients diagnosed with a skeletal class III malocclusion who underwent SSRO alone were enrolled in this study. The movements of the mandibular condyles were assessed using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and a 3D imaging program at ≤1 month before the operation (T0), 1 week after the operation (T1), and 6 months (T2) and 1year (T3) postoperative. Yaw and roll were increased at T1 as compared to T0. However, the proximal segments reverted to their original positions between T2 and T3. There was a positive correlation between the extent of the posterior movement of the mandible and relapse at 6 months and 1year postoperative. Although the proximal bone segments showed displacement in three dimensions at T1, they reverted to their original positions over time. In addition, although there was a positive correlation between the extent of the posterior movement of the mandible and the occurrence of post-surgical relapse at 6 months and 1year post-surgery, the rotation of the proximal bone segment during surgery had no relationship with postoperative relapse.