Correlation between human papillomavirus infection and bladder transitional cell carcinoma

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Correlation between human papillomavirus infection and bladder transitional cell carcinoma

Publisher
BioMed Central
Publication Date
Nov 08, 2005
Source
PMC
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Chemistry
  • Ecology
  • Geography
  • Medicine
License
Unknown

Abstract

What is urinary bladder urothelial (transitional) cell carcinoma? Urinary bladder urothelial cell carcinoma starts in the cells lining the bladder and, if not treated successfully at an early stage, can spread to nearby organs or other parts of the body. In industrial countries, this type of cancer accounts for 90 percent of bladder cancers. Early-stage bladder cancer can be treated effectively; however, patients must be monitored carefully after treatment because the chance of bladder cancer returning is high–50 to 80 percent. Who is most likely to have urinary bladder urothelial cell carcinoma? Urinary bladder urothelial cell carcinoma occurs more often in men. About 60,000 Americans are diagnosed with this disease each year. It is the fourth most common cancer among men and eighth most common among women. It is also more common among Caucasians. Chronic urinary or bladder infections and kidney and bladder stones increase the risk of bladder cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute, urinary bladder urothelial cell carcinoma occurs most commonly in industrialized countries such as the United States, Canada, and France. This situation is due to lifestyle and environmental factors including lifespan, diet, smoking, and workplace carcinogens. This type of cancer is much more common in people over age 70. Cigarette smoking, diets high in saturated fat, and exposure to workplace carcinogens increases the risk. Workers exposed to antineoplastic drugs (used in chemotherapy) or certain types of hair, medical or industrial dyes also can be at increased risk. These workers include hairdressers, machinists, printers, painters, truck drivers, and those in the rubber, chemical, textile, metal and leather industries. What characterizes urinary bladder urothelial cell carcinoma? Urinary bladder urothelial cell carcinoma is characterized by a lump or tumor that is formed in the bladder, and if aggressive, grows outside the bladder. The most common symptom of urinary b

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