Four 1-theta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C)-and one dimethylnitrosamine-transformed Syrian hamster cell lines were established. All produced tumors when inoculated into newborn hamsters. Specific chromosome changes were found in these lines consistent with changes observed recently by other investigators. Clones that had either high or low malignant potential were derived from two fibrosarcomas produced by one of the ara-C-transformed cell lines. The expression of malignancy in these clones was associated with an excess of 57 chromosomes over 73 chromosomes.