Objective To investigate the correlation between aneuploidy pregnancy and the concentration of various hormones and vascular endothelial factor in follicular fluid as well as the number of acquired oocytes and to provide a scientific basis for improving ovulation induction programs. Methods In total, we collected 277 follicular fluid specimens from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment in our hospital. Eighteen cases of aneuploidy embryos were identified. The follicular fluid of these aneuploidy embryos was used for the study. According to the case and control 1:5 paired design, we selected five age-matched controls with healthy births following IVF for each aneuploidy case. Concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen (E2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the follicular fluid were measured. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between aneuploidy pregnancy and the concentrations of various hormones and VEGF in the follicular fluid as well as the number of acquired oocytes. Results Multivariate conditional logistic regression showed that of all the factors analyzed, only FSH [odds ratio (OR) = 1.300, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.091–1.548, P = 0.003] level in the follicular fluid and the number of acquired oocytes (OR = 1.179, 95% CI, 1.070–1.299, P = 0.001) were closely related to aneuploidy pregnancy. No other factors were found to be associated with aneuploidy pregnancy. Conclusion FSH concentrations in the follicular fluid are risk factors for aneuploidy pregnancies. The higher the number of eggs, the higher the risk of aneuploidy. These findings may help improve ovulation induction programs.